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Supporting the 43 Home Office police forces of England and Wales, law enforcement organisations and wider criminal justice partners by providing a consistently accurate, timely and reliable online criminal law database.

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Legal Q&A

Clarification of the condition in section 18(5A) PACE


A suspect of an indictable offence is arrested just outside their home address as they return home. Officers believe evidence of the offence will be found in their home address and that other people may be inside the address, aware of the suspects arrest and will seek to destroy the evidence. A section 18(5) is proposed so the search can be conducted before evidence is destroyed. Would this be lawful, as whilst the search is necessary for the effective investigation, the suspect actually isn’t required at the place to be searched and it could leave us open to challenge?

Case Law

Ruling regarding the presumption about the dedication of a highway

In the case of DPP v Instone 2022, it was held that a presumption regarding the dedication of a highway, whether under section 31 Highways Act 1980 or at common law, could only arise if a way over land had actually been enjoyed by the public as of right and without interruption for 20 years.

Legal Q&A

Consent to sexual intercourse in response to an ultimatum


The male suspect and female complainant are in a relationship. The suspect asks the complainant for sex, but she refuses. The suspect then tells her that if she doesn’t have sex with him, he will throw her out (effectively make her homeless). The complainant agrees to have sex with him but only because she does not want to be homeless; and she actively takes part in sexual intercourse with him. Is this rape?

Team PNLD Receive National Commendation

At the recent NPCC Op Talla National Awards 2022 held at the Connaught Rooms, London, members of our team were in attendance to receive national recognition for PNLD’s efforts in the response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Team PNLD Receive National Commendation